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  • 試題題型【閱讀理解 Section B】
試題內容
A. cynic, Ambrose Bierce remarked in his "Devil's Dictionary", is "a blackguard ( 無賴,惡棍) whose faulty vision sees things as they are, not as they ought to be." Inthe century that has elapsed since Bierce's death, science has caught up with him.Cynicism, in all its guises, really may make us see the world more realistically--though at a high personal cost.

B. The phenomenon, which psychologists call "depressive realism", was first identifiedby Lauren Alloy and Lyn Abramson, psychologists at Northwestern and the StateUniversity of New York at Stony Brook, respectively, who were studying the illusionthat people often have of being in control when, in reality, they are not. In 1979, theytook two groups of college students--one depressed, one not--and had them estimatehow much control they had over a green light that would either turn on or not whenthey pressed a button. In reality, there was never a perfect correlation between theaction and the event. The light would sometimes turn on when the student pressed thebutton, and sometimes when he didn't. What varied from student to student was thefrequency with which the action corresponded with a result. The researchers found.that the depressed individuals were much better at identifying those instances whenthey had little control over the outcomes, while the non-depressed students tended tooverestimate their degree of influence over the light.
C. The difference became even more interesting when Alloy and Abramson added money
into the experiment. In some cases, the light was linked to losing money. Participantsstarted out with five dollars and gradually lost it, quarter by quarter, as the lightdidn't respond to their actions. In the other cases, the light signaled financial gain;participants started with nothing but received a quarter each time the light went on. Atthe end, each person in the first situation emerged having lost five dollars, and each inthe second having won five dollars.
D. When the researchers asked the participants how much control they thought they'dhad throughout the experiment, those who weren't depressed reported havingsignificantly more control than they actually had--but only when they won. Whenthey lost, they estimated that they had much less control than was the case. Thedepressed participants, on the other hand, were far more accurate in their judgments.Depression, Alloy and Abramson concluded, had prevented an unwarranted ( 毫無根據的 ) illusion of control when someone won--and had provided a sense ofresponsibility when someone lost. In the years since Alloy and Abramson's initialstudies, depressive realism has also been shown to arise from general pessimism and,yes, from cynicism.
E. By 1992, Alloy and Abramson had replicated their findings in numerous contexts. Notonly were depressed individuals more realistic in their judgments, they argued, butthe very illusion of being in control held by those who weren't depressed was likelyprotecting them from depression. In other words, the rose-colored glow, no matterhow unwarranted, helped people to maintain a healthier mental state. Depression bredobjectivity. A lack of objectivity led to a healthier, more adaptive, and more resilient (能復原的 ) mind-set.
F. Why would that be the case? As it turns out, the way we explain the world canhave very real effects on our physical and emotional well-being--both positive andnegative. It's a phenomenon that the Harvard University psychologist Daniel Gilberthas called the "psychological immune system", a feedback loop between how wethink and how we feel. If we think more optimistically, we tend to feel better, whichin tum makes us think more optimistically.
 G. The notion that our outlook on life is connected to our well-being is not a new one.In the nineteen-sixties, the University of Connecticut psychologist Julian Rotterproposed that we could view extemal events in one of two lights: either we controlledthem or they were the result of something in the environment. He found thatsuccessful people tended to follow the same patterns. They took credit for successes,and they reasoned away negative events.
 H. A decade later, the University of Massachusetts Bobbi Fibel and W psychologistsDaniel Hale realized that the effect went even further: when you thought you'd dowell--a mind-set that they termed a "generalized expectancy of success"--you weremore likely to be shielded from negative life events. It didn't matter whether youwere in control; what mattered was your belief that you had good things coming toyou. Positive expectations generally lead to positive results.
 I. Most recently, the psychologists Michael Scheier and Charles Carver have takenthe insight further still: the positive buffer comes from neither simply control norexpectation alone. Instead, it's your general outlook on life, or, as they call it, your "lifeorientation". Their Life Orientation Test, or LOT, measures how a person respondsto a set of statements that range from "I hardly expect things to go my way" to "Inuncertain times, I usually expect the best." Positive responses are associated withgeneralized success and negative responses are related to depression and helplessness.
J .In a review of the field, Carver and Scheier have further expanded their initialfindings to show that increased optimism, after controlling for other factors, alsoleads to improved career success, strengthens friendships and marriages, protectsagainst loneliness later in life, lowers the risk of heart disease and mortality ( 死亡率 ) in wome.n, protects against strokes, helps to reduce the need for rehospitalization ( 重復住院) following surgery, and improves sleep quality in children. In all cases, optimism serves as a shield, allowing us to see the world in a light that is more helpful to our own mental and physical well-being.
K. It all comes back, Daniel Gilbert says, to expectations. When we expect to do well, we push on. When we set our sights lower, we balk at signs of resistance. Depressive realists and cynics set themselves lower goals to begin with and then give up when they find that they are falling short. As everyone's favorite pessimist, A. A. Milne's Eeyore, tells Pooh, "We can't all, and some of us don't. That's all there is to it." His expectations are so low that the effort doesn't seem worth it. The negative view is self-fulfilling: you set lower expectations, do less, achieve less, and experience a worse outcome, which in turn conforms to your initial negative views.
 L. Of course, unwarranted optimism, too, comes with a price. It's Tigger, the unrelenting( 不屈不饒的 ) optimist, who finds himself eating thistles, stuck in trees, and otherwise caught in all manner of inopportune situations. When we're overconfident and think we're in control of situations when we're not, we may find ourselves overreaching and persisting in hopeless tasks. It's a fine balance. Set your goals too high, and the effects on health can be just as perilous ( 危險的,不利的) . Aspire to an Olympic medal in figure skating when you can barely clear a double Axel, and you're doomed to disappointment.
M. Still, it seems that, at least as far as the research goes, it's far healthier to think like Tigger than like Eeyore.
1.[選詞填空]According to the researches that have been done so far, it's much healthier to be over- optimistic than to have low expectation and make little effort.
    • 解題思路:題干意為,依據迄今為止已經進行的研究,過于樂觀要比期望低和不努力要健康得多。根據題干中的關鍵詞over-optimistic和low expectation可定位到M段。該段提到,無論如何,至少按目前取得的研究進展來看,像跳跳虎那樣積極樂觀地看待生活,終歸要比像小毛驢屹耳那樣憂郁悲觀健康得多。原文中的Tigger和Eeyore分別代表過于樂觀和低期望兩種觀念。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選M。
    2.[選詞填空]Carver and Scheier found that increased optimism can benefit our mental and physicalhealth.
      • 解題思路:題干意為,卡弗和沙伊爾發現,高漲的樂觀精神可以使我們的身心健康受益。根據題干中的關鍵詞Carver and Scheier和increased optimism可定位到J段。該段首句提到,在一次回顧中,卡弗和沙伊爾進一步拓展了他們最初的發現,以顯示高漲的樂觀主義除了能夠控制其他因素外,還有促進事業上的成功等諸多益處。在上述情況中,樂觀主義發揮著盾牌一般的保衛作用,使我們能夠以更加有益于身心健康的眼光看世界。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選J。
      3.[選詞填空]Cynicism may actually enable us to have a clearer understanding of the world in a realistic way. 
        • 解題思路:題干意為,犬儒主義或許能夠讓我們從現實的角度對世界有一個更為清楚的認識。根據題干中的關鍵詞cynicism,clearer和realistic way定位到A段。該段末句提示,犬儒主義或許真的能使我們更加現實地看待這個世界——盡管我們會為之付出不小的代價。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選A。
        4.[選詞填空]Overconfident people will have to pay for their baseless optimism. 
          • 解題思路:題干意為,過度自信的人將會不得不為其毫無根據的樂觀付出代價。注意抓住題干中的關鍵詞pay和baseless optimism可定位到L段。該段首句提到,毫無根據的樂觀自然也是要付出代價的。原文中隨后緊接著論述了為什么過度自信的人會陷入困境。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選L。
          5.[選詞填空]Setting unrealistically high goals will put our health in danger.
            • 解題思路:題干意為,設定高得不切實際的目標將會使我們的健康處于危險的境地。根據題干中的關鍵詞Setting unrealistically high goals可定位到L段。該段倒數第二句提到,將自己的目標定得過高時,會對健康造成非常危險的影響。題干中的put…in danger對應原文中的the effects…Callbejust as perilous。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選L。
            6.[選詞填空]In the 1970s, psychologists found that when you thought you'd do well, you were lesslikely to experience bad things in life.
              • 解題思路:題干意為,在20世紀70年代,心理學家們發現,當你認為你能做好的時候,你就越不太會在人生中遭遇不好的事情。根據題干中的關鍵詞1970s和psychologistsfound可定位到H段。該段首句提到,十年之后(即20世紀70年代),馬薩諸塞大學的心理學家波比·菲博爾以及W.丹尼爾·哈爾發現這種心態還會產生更加深遠的影響:當你認為自己表現良好時,規避生活中的消極事件的可能性往往會更高。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選H。
              7.[選詞填空]The way we think of the world can influence our physical and emotional well-being both positively and negatively.
                • 解題思路:題干意為,我們看待世界的方式能夠給我們的身心健康帶來積極和消極的影響。根據題干中的關鍵詞the way we think of the world和positively and negatively可定位到F段。該段第二句提到,事實證明,我們闡釋這個世界的方式會對我們的心理和情感健康產生實際影響,不僅有正面影響,還會有負面影響。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選F。
                8.[選詞填空]Optimism, no matter how unrealistic it is, can improve people's mental health.
                  • 解題思路:題干意為,樂觀,不管它有多么地不切實際,都可以促進人們的心理健康。根據題干中的關鍵詞nO matter how unrealistic和mental health可定位到E段。該段第三句提到,也就是說,這種樂觀的幻覺可以幫助人們保持更為健康的心態,不管它有多么地缺乏依據。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選E。
                  9.[選詞填空]Depressive realists and cynics tend to set lower goals and easily give up.
                    • 解題思路:題干意為,抑郁的現實主義者和憤世嫉俗者傾向于設定較低的目標和輕易放棄。根據題干中的關鍵詞depressive realists and cynics可定位到K段。該段第三句提到,抑郁的現實主義者和憤世嫉俗者在一開始就為自己制定了較低的目標,因此當他們發現自己的目標無法實現時,就會輕易將其放棄。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選K。
                    10.[選詞填空]It has already been proposed by Julian Rotter in the 1960s that we would view external events either as a result of environment or something under our control.
                      • 解題思路:題干意為,在20世紀60年代朱利安·羅特就已提出,我們要么視外部事件為環境的產物,要么處于我們的控制之中。根據題干中的關鍵詞Julian Rotter和1960s可定位到G段。該段第二句提到,早在20世紀60年代,康涅狄格大學的心理學家朱利安·羅特就已提出,我們看待外部事件的方式無外乎以下兩種:它們不是被我們所控制,便是環境的產物。由此可知,題干是對原文的同義轉述,故選G。
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                      • 參考答案:M,J,A,L,L,H,F,E,K,G
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